Showing posts with label dogs. Show all posts
Showing posts with label dogs. Show all posts

Friday, June 22, 2018

10 Most Important Tips To Training Your Puppies

10 Most Important Tips To Training Your Puppies

All of us dream of parenting the perfect dog, a pup that is a CGC or canine good citizen and is well behaved and dependable at all times. Well dreams do come true if the training is done with care and dedication. Remember pups learn from day one and need to be taught what is right, what is wrong, and proper socialization.

Pups are like children, they need constant supervision and training. Training a pup need not be an ordeal all you need to keep in mind are a few simple rules:

Until your pup learns you need to keep an eye on him at all times. When you cannot then you must crate him. Create a schedule for the pup this will help the pup settle down quickly. The schedule must include things like hourly bath rooming visits, eating times, rest periods, walks, play time, training, and so on. A pup that has a busy day has no time to be bored and get into mischief.

Teach the pup to respect you. Dogs live in packs and instinctively follow a leader. If you establish your leadership in no uncertain terms then training will become easy as the pup will obey you at all times and not challenge your authority.

Use only positive training methods. Never shout at, hit, or punish a dog. It is not just cruel but can lead to behavioral problems. Use of electric shocks, prong collars, sprays, and so on could hurt the animal.

Teach the pup “nothing in life is free.” This is a system that is widely acknowledged as a useful training tool. If you practice this, the pup will learn that to get something like love, a walk, or treat, he must behave well.


Teach the meaning of “No,” from day one. Do not encourage behaviors like jumping, mouthing, tug-o-war, barking, or running out of open gates and doors. Praise good behavior and ignore or walk away when there is bad behavior. The pup will learn that if he misbehaves he will loose his companion/playmate.

To correct a behavior you must catch the pup in the act and startle him by rattling a can of pebbles. Once you have done this make him correct his behavior and immediately offer him a treat and praise. Pups do not recall what happened earlier so scolding him after an event is of no use.

Always call/use his name positively. Never say “Bad TOM,” or “No Tom,” this will cause confusion and the pup will think that if you call his name then it is something bad. The pup must associate his name with happy events like hugs, petting, walks, treats, and such. If this happens he will come willingly when you call out his name.

Create a training schedule that is short and sweet say 10 minutes thrice a day. Long repetitive lessons can be boring and the pup will loose interest in learning. Make learning fun and use trick training to teach commands like sit, down, come and so on.

Bond with the pup and both of you will enjoy your lessons. The pup must look forward to spending time with you and not avoid you by running away or hiding. Be sure to socialize the pup early. Socialization is one of the most important lessons. The pup must learn to be around other animals, people, sounds, vehicles, and other activities. So, slowly introduce the pup when he is little to everyday activities and sounds. Take him to the mall/ park, introduce him to children and other pets, and make him unafraid of the vacuum and garden hose.

Learn all about crate training, leash walking, house breaking, as well as food training. These are kindergarten lessons that every pup must master. Know about all the idiosyncrasies as well as peculiarities of the breed this will give you valuable insights on how to successfully train the pup.

As a pet-parent you have many choices. You could choose to train the dog yourself or register at a professional training school. Training a dog has many stages: kindergarten, obedience training, doggy sports, showing and conformation, as well as other aspects like therapy dogs, hearing dogs, and so on. What level you choose to train depends on you as well as the learning abilities of your dog. As you know, different dogs like humans have varied talents. Choose well and both you and your pup will have fun times together.

6 Great Tips For Getting Your Dog Toilet Trained

6 Great Tips For Getting Your Dog Toilet Trained

One of the toughest jobs that a family faces when a new puppy comes home is getting the dog housebroken. This means that the dog will eliminate outdoors and not use your home and furnishings as a toilet. Lots of people think that getting doggy toilet trained is a tough task, but it doesn’t need to be. If you arm yourself with plenty of information for the best ways to get your dog house trained, you are on the right path to having a dog that goes to the bathroom where you want him to go.

When to House Train


A dog can be toilet trained at any age, but the best age to begin is between eight and twelve weeks old. If you set up a housebreaking routine as soon as you bring your puppy home, before long he will get the right idea of where to do his business. A crate is a great tool for toilet training a puppy. It keeps him confined when there is no supervision and most dogs learn quickly that if they make in their crate they will have to sit in it. Most dogs are fairly hygienic and won’t enjoy having to sit in dog doody or urine.


The Advantages of Using a Crate


Be sure there is enough room in the crate for your pup to turn around, but don't leave so much room that he will be able to eliminate and lie down far away from it. Many dog owners view a crate as a jail cell or to use as punishment, but your dog will love having his own space where he can escape from the hustle and bustle of the household for some quiet time. Make your dogs crate a happy place and don’t use it for punishment. You can feed your dog in the crate, or while he is in there, offer him some treats. Place a favorite chewy or toy in there with him, add blankets and he will have a cozy den to escape to whenever he feels the need. Utilizing a crate for your dog can keep him out of trouble and not only in housebreaking.

Keep Your Eyes Peeled


Keeping a close eye on your puppy is a key factor in getting him properly housetrained. Whenever you see that he is sniffing, circling or beginning to squat, immediately take him outside to the place where you want him to go and see if he eliminates. If he does, praise him lavishly. A good idea is to have a cue, such as “hurry up” so that your puppy knows what you want him to do. When he is going to the bathroom repeat the cue and then give your dog lots of praise for a job well done. It is better to take the dog out and nothing happens then take a chance of an accident happening.

Have a Schedule


Feeding, watering and walking your dog on a regular schedule will make housebreaking that much easier. Puppies are like children and they thrive on a routine. Try and take the dog out around the same time everyday so they will be able to adjust their bodily functions. The first thing you should do in the morning is take the puppy from the crate and don’t let his feet touch the ground. Bring him to the place where you want him to go, give the cue, and praise upon a successful completion. Take your puppy out at least every two hours, after eating or drinking and especially after play. Before you know it, your puppy will be letting you know it is time to go out and do his business.

Don't Let the Puppy Roam


Letting your puppy roam around the house is a sure fire way to have accidents. If you have decided you don't want to use a crate, and even if you do use one, confining the dog to certain areas of the house can make housetraining easier for everyone. It is difficult to keep track of a puppy when he has the run of the house, but if you gate him in the kitchen, he will still be able to be part of the action and can be better supervised in case of an accident.

Don’t Get Discouraged


There will be times when you first begin housetraining that you feel your pup is just not getting it. He may have accidents in the house as well on occasion. There is no need to be discouraged. If you stick to your routine, keep a good eye on the dog and make frequent outings to his outdoor bathroom, in no time your puppy will be housebroken. Another good idea is to use the same door all the time when you are taking him out so that when he has to go, he will scratch on the door to be let out. Once this happens, you can say hurray and know that your puppy truly is beginning to understand that going to the bathroom in the house is a no-no.


6 Easy Ways To Find A Good Dog Training Professional

6 easy ways to find a good dog training professional

Finding a good dog training professional

With so many people advertising in the field of professional dog training today, trying to determine who's truly qualified to look after your dog can be overwhelming.  What to look for when choosing a professional to help you with dog training :


  1.  A good reputation, ask around and get recommendations from your vet, other dog owners, or local kennel clubs.
  2. Experience. - Inquire about their background,  i.e. number of years experience. 
  3. A genuine love of and devotion to dogs. 
  4. Extensive and up to date knowledge. Dedicated trainers keep themselves updated by attending dog training and animal behaviour courses, conferences, seminars and workshops.
  5. Their training methodology and handling skills. A good trainers first concern should be the dogs well being. 
  6. Memberships with reputable associations, organizations and training clubs. 


General dog obedience tips


Training should be a positive and enjoyable experience for both you and your dog. If you are not in the right mood for training, don’t even begin. Always reward your dog for obeying your commands promptly! A reward is anything that your dog wants and is willing to work for. Treats are an obvious reward but other rewards could be verbal praise and toys. Several shorter sessions are usually better than one long one. Training should not involve any negative components or punishment . There should be no shouting, no hitting or smacking, no chain jerking on choke chains or collars, and absolutely no electric shocking! Each training session should be enjoyable and positive with rewards for jobs well done.

Training with head collars

Pulling on the lead is one of the few unpleasant experiences of bringing up a new puppy or dog. Using a head collar for dog training has become very popular over the last few years. Training with a head collar does have some advantages over the traditional training collar. Although very simple to use, it is important that head collars are fitted correctly and your dog properly introduced to the collar. Head collars are generally more intuitive to use than a traditional training collar. Head collars are very effective when controlling dogs in difficult situations.

5 Tips For Training Dogs Successfully

5 Tips For Training Dogs Successfully

Training dogs is not a hard. You just need patience, dedication and some simple tactics and you will teach them successfully.

Here are five top tips on how to train your dogs successfully:


1. To avoid your dog getting confused and so that they can learn to recognize commands easily only one person should be responsible for training the dog initially. If too many people are trying to train the dog at the same time this can stop progress in its tracks.

2. You should use positive reinforcements. If the dog does something good, you should reward this behavior so that he will know that what he did was right. If the dog cannot understand or follow your commands, never push him. Dogs are not as intelligent as humans, they make mistakes. What you should understand is that they won’t easily understand your commands in just one teaching, it takes repetition to train a dog successfully. Do not scold your dog as he might develop fear which will hinder his learning and willingness to be trained. You can use treats in order to encourage your dogs, although don’t overdue it.

3. Teach commands one at a time. Try to teach him one command after the other. If he cannot absorb it, try to stay on that command only because adding additional commands will just confuse the dog. Start with the basics.

4. In executing commands, you should keep your voice cheerful so that the dog will happily follow your commands. Dogs will respond to a low and coaxing voice. If you shout out loud, he may become startled and unresponsive.

5. Train your dog in various places. If you keep your dogs in a certain place like your home, he will not be able to adjust with the environment new people. Take him to the park or through the neighborhood. This will help your dog associate with other dogs and people.

Training your dog can sometime be tough, but it will be worth it. In the end, you will be the one to benefit when your dog is trained. You don’t know he might even save your life one day and pay back everything you taught him.

5 Steps to a Better Behaved Pet

5 Steps to a Better Behaved Pet

Want to live a healthier lifestyle? Get a dog.

Studies show that pet ownership helps reduce stress, lowers blood pressure and fends off feelings of loneliness and depression.

While nothing can top the love and companionship of a dog, there are some unpleasant behaviors that just won't do - from barking all night to wetting the floor to chewing on your shoes when you're not looking.

If your dog is exhibiting this type of behavior, it may be acting out due to boredom, pent-up aggression or because of lack of training. With proper lifestyle adjustments and diligent training, you'll be on your way to having a happy, well-behaved pet. The following tips will help your furry friend become more obedient:

* Spay or neuter. The Humane Society of the United States says that this common procedure can help your dog live longer, be healthier and have fewer behavior problems.

* Help your pet relax. Just like people, dogs can get anxious, agitated and stressed. That's why some veterinarians suggest giving your dog a calming product, such as Pluto Pet's Pet Calming Spray, to help relieve hyperactivity.

Made with natural ingredients, Pet Calming Spray acts quickly to relieve restlessness, fear, nervousness and aggression and helps antsy pets sleep through the night, according to the manufacturer.

* Have a workout routine. Provide your canine companion with regularly scheduled walks twice a day. This will help your dog avoid boredom, which can lead to destructive behavior.

* Go to school. According to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, enrolling your dog in an obedience class will teach you how to control your dog's behavior both safely and humanely.

* Be patient. Though teaching your furry friend to be more obedient may take determination on your part, it's worth it. After all, as man's best friend, your dog will appreciate bonding with you during the process.

5 Great Tips On Building A Dog House

5 Great Tips On Building A Dog House

Over 50% of the population allows their dog to stay indoors and sleep on the couch or in their owner’s bed. For those of you who are interested in building a dog house for you beloved pet here are some simple rules to follow when considering what type of shelter you want to provide.

1. You should begin your dog house building process by making sure the house is big enough to accommodate your animal’s potential adult size. Humans enjoy having about 2 feet of air above us in a room in order to live without feeling claustrophobic. Your dog will probably also enjoy having that much room. The comfort zone for both humans and dogs is about 1/3 of their standing height. To figure out how much room the dog will need get out a tape measure and measure your dog. Measure him standing straight up, sitting on his haunches and above all measure the full dimension of the dog when he is the most comfortable, relaxed and stretched out position he can get into. Your dog should be able to look out the front entrance while both standing up and sitting. So the dog will not have to significantly lover his front shoulders or scrape his belly make sure that entrance is high enough. Stand over the dog and measure the width of the widest point of the animal’s shoulders.

2. Remember to raise the dog house several inches from the ground to allow air and water to flow underneath. To dissuade pests from invading the dog house and taking your dogs health into consideration remember how important ventilation is. Put in a few nickel-sized holes in the walls under the eaves. Install a wind block inside the house so the dog can use the heat of its own body to warm up the area if it is really cold or windy outside. Consider adding a partial wall which will allow your dog to escape the bad weather. Your animal can choose to just sleep in the entry room or go around the inner archway maze wall into the inner sanctum. Your beloved pet would probably love having a pillow or some sort of bedding to sleep on.

3. To avoid rain coming into the dog house make the floor just a bit slanted toward the doorway and build the roof a little bit slanted, as well. Make sure the house is well insulated but you should not paint the inside.

4. In the United States most storms come from the south and west so make sure the dog house faces a different direction. Most dog house plans suggest that the dog house door faces east. The cold air will not be able to whip through the entryway then.

5. It is suggested that you put hinges on the roof of the dog house. This makes it easier for you to clean out your dog’s home. You should clean the dog’s house as often as you give your dog a bath.

If your dog lives outside then he deserves to have a comfortable place to sleep and get out of harsh weather. Hopefully these easy tips on building a dog house will help you get started.

4 to 8 Dog Agility Jumps Makes Ideal Training

4 to 8 Dog Agility Jumps Makes Ideal Training

We are often asked, "How many jumps should I start with?"  You can never have too many single jumps to practice agility.  A good starting place is four jumps.  This is the absolute minimum number of jumps that we recommend. 

You can teach a variety of skills, drills, and exercises with four jumps.  Four jumps will allow you to work on a short jump chute or jump grid.  You can setup a "box" with your jumps and practice handling, collection, and 270 degree jumps.  You can teach your dog jumping left and right.  You can be outside the box and send your dog or you can handle from the inside of the box.  Your jumps can be setup in a horizontal line, so that you can practice serpentines and threadles.

Go the next step and get eight jumps.  Now you can setup two boxes with one introductory jump.  You've now multiplied your drills that you can practice with your dog.  Your jump grids can be of recommended size and quantity of jumps.  You can also setup your jumps in a circle with the jump bars perpendicular to the circle or on the circumference of the circle.  This pattern also enables you to train a variety of skills.

Your next consideration is a double jump and a triple jump.  You could set two or three single jumps together to make your expanded jump, but having double and triple jump in your course work is really valuable to practice.  We've seen many dogs run a clean course and the last obstacle is a triple and the dog is not prepared for it, and bang, down comes the bar.

You can really be ahead of the pack and have two sets of eight jumps.  This is the ultimate in training because you can keep a jump grip up at all times that is separate from your course work, and have eight single jumps to have for course work.  And when you include your double and triple, you can really practice all the jumping skills and drills necessary to get you those "Qs".

Saturday, June 16, 2018

3 Important Things To Remember When Training Your Puppy

3 Important Things To Remember When Training Your Puppy

There are as many ways to raise a puppy as there are to raising a child. In fact, one way per family in general! But most of us agree that when it comes to children, certain things are universal and undisputed. Here are three things that a lot of people just do not think of when it comes to raising their dogs, however. How many times have we heard, "My dog just won't listen to me", or "He just won't behave!"

1. Dogs do not understand English until we teach them.


The thing we all love about puppies the most is the way they live for us, the way they focus all they have on us, the way our lives become theirs. in the beginning, they study us to learn our body language, our facial expressions and our language. Until we teach them the English language, it's all they have. If we say, "Wanna go out?" one day, "Have to go potty?" the next day, and, "Hafta pee?" the third day, if they DO figure out what we want, it is because we have picked up the leash and moved toward the door with a happy face! If you want to speed up his training by three-fold, teach him YOUR language. Pick a command for EACH behavior and stick with it. Tell all in your family to use the same words and commands, and your puppy will amaze you at how much faster he learns.

2. A young puppy's metabolism is racing along faster than we think.


The younger your puppy is, the faster he is growing, the more food and water he needs to fuel his metabolism, and the more often he has to go potty. Do not punish your puppy when he makes a house-breaking mistake. These are YOUR fault. Your puppy's age in weeks and his breed size determine how often he must go out. Once an hour is not too often for a large 6-week old puppy, especially if it is summertime. Dogs love the exciting smells outdoors, so there is no excuse to not have him housebroken by 7-8 weeks of age. Right after a nap, after he eats and after grooming are the key times, and he will signal you. If he is happily chewing a toy and gets up suddenly with his nose to the floor, move quickly! And every time he goes potty outside, praise him to high heaven! "What a good BOYY!", "GOOD go potty!" and the like. Dogs love our happy faces, and they will do anything to get it.

3. Dogs live for our facial expressions and body language.


Because of this, the worst punishment you ever need to give your dog is a scowl and to turn away from him. You can see his tail fall down and his face get so sad. He will learn the lesson, I guarantee it. But his attention span is only 3-5 minutes, so do not scorn him any longer. Love him up and give him your happy face again. Physical punishment is never necessary. Use consistent commands and loving praise and he will know what you want of him before you know. He will become a master of your body language and facial expressions in no time at all.

Naturally there are many aspects of training your puppy well. Loving kindness works just as well for puppies as it does with children, creating a happy, well-adjusted and obedient dog for life. These three important tips, used consistently with confidence, will start him well on his way.

3 easy to teach dog tricks

3 easy to teach dog tricks

To teach your dog tricks even easy ones you need to have some small reward treats, be in a quiet suitable place and keep the training sessions to 10 - 15 minutes or your dog will start to get board, remember when he gets something right lots of praise and a reward treat, just be careful not to get him over excited or he will loose concentration.

Getting your dog to give you his paw, first get your dog to sit, then as you say the word 'paw' take your dogs paw in your hand, give the dog a treat, repeat this, after a few times do not take his paw so quickly, say the word, count to one then take it, you should notice he is bringing his paw up as you say the word if he does not go back to saying it at the same time, do it a few more times then slow your response again. After 2 or 3 sessions most dogs pick this one up quite happily.

The high five, like a lot of tricks the high five is a progression of an earlier trick, in this cast the paw trick. Hold a treat in your fingers and raise your hand slightly higher than you would for the paw trick. You dog will think you want to do the paw trick and will reach for the treat with his paw as we taught him earlier, as he reaches up you say “high five” and give him the treat. Once your dog has mastered the paw trick this one should be very easy to learn and with just a few sessions he will be doing it on hand signal rather than voice control.

Getting your dog to jump through a hoop, before you start this one I would just like to ask you to be a little sensible and not hold the hoop too high as you do not want your dog to heart himself while doing the trick. Sit your dog on one side of a hoola hoop, get the dogs attention on your hand on the other side of the hoop take a treat in your hand and give the dog the command to release him from the sit, at first he may attempt to go around or under the hoop, if this happens start again, your dog wants the treat and will soon learn that going around or under does not get it so he will soon start going through it, when he does say hoopla and give him the treat. He will soon be jumping through the hoop on the command of hoopla. When I started doing this trick I had a medium sized dog (a Labrador) so I started with the hoop 6 inches from the ground and slowly raised it to waist height, if you have a smaller dog you might want to start with the hoop touching the ground so the dog just goes through the hoop and then slowly raise it as he gets used to the trick.

Sit Up Buddy Training Your Dog To Sit Like You

Sit Up Buddy Training Your Dog To Sit Like You

The trick of “sitting up” is easily taught to small dogs, but should try not be included in a big dog’s education, as it is difficult for them to preserve their balance.

The training of sitting up is one of the first tricks to teach and forms the groundwork for many other dog tricks. To train a dog to sit up, prepare some treats as a reward, and set your dog on his haunches in a corner, so that he cannot fall either backward or sideways and has very little or no space to lose balance.

Keep him from pitching forward by holding one hand under his chin and with the other hand hold the treat above his nose and keep repeating distinctly and deliberately say, “sit up.” Do not make him sit up too long at any one time, but repeat the lesson frequently and reward him often with plentiful of praise and treats.

During his first lesson he will require considerable assistance from your hand to prevent him from pitching forward, but as he gets control of the balancing muscles and understands what you want, he will depend less and less upon your hand to keep him in position and you can gradually render him less assistance until you will only have to keep one hand in position two or three inches from his neck or chin, so as to be ready to prevent him pitching forward; later on you can withdraw this hand entirely and simply hold the treat just above the level of his head.

By constant practice he will sit up well after you set him up; then he should be set up against the wall, so as to afford him a support for his back only, and after he has been well schooled at this and can keep his position easily, practice him against chair legs, cushions or other objects that afford him less and less assistance, until finally he learns to preserve his balance and sits up without anything to lean against.

During all these lessons the words “sit up” have been impressed upon his mind by frequent repetition, and now comes the final lesson to teach him to sit up as soon as he hears the words, and the chances are, if he has been diligently drilled, it will be necessary only to call him out in the room, show him a treat, hold it up a suitable distance from the floor, say “sit up” and he will do so, when he should be given the treat while still in position.

The only necessity to perfection is to practice him several times a day until he will sit up at the word and without being shown a reward; that can be given him after he has obeyed.

You have now a foundation for many other tricks. He can be taught to beg by moving your hand up and down just in front of his paws, which he will move in unison with yours. He can also be taught to salute by bringing one paw up to the side of his head, or to hold a wooden pipe in his mouth, or to wear a cap on his head or other articles of wearing apparel.

In teaching a dog to submit to being dressed up, do not attempt to get him to wear too many things at once; try him at first with a cap and after he becomes accustomed to that you can put on a coat and gradually accustom him to the other clothing articles.

Enjoy teaching your dog the “sit up” trick and most importantly have fun along the way!

On Trust And Paid For One of the Oldest Dog Tricks that Never Fail to Entertain

'On Trust' & 'Paid For': One of the Oldest Dog Tricks that Never Fail to Entertain

“On Trust” & “Paid For” for are one of the oldest dog tricks that afford as much entertainment as anything a dog can do since the early 1900s. It is not the easiest trick to be taught but can be elaborated on and presented in several different forms to impress most people.

To teach this trick call your dog to you, allowing him to stand up or sit down, as he desires, and hold his head steady with on hand, while you balance a piece of treat on his nose.

Say to him, “On trust, on trust,” steadying and restraining his head from moving with one hand and holding up a threatening finger with the other and repeating the words, “On trust, on trust”.

After which, release his head, saying “paid for,” and give him a little chuck under the chin, that will cause him to toss the treat up and catch it. Of course, in his earlier attempts he will not be able to catch the treat, but he should be allowed to eat the treat after it land on the floor.

Continuous repetition of this training will produce efficiency. Over time you should stop restraining his head with your hand and allow him to balance the treat on his nose until you give him the words “Paid for.”

He can also be taught also to hold the treat between his teeth and not to swallow it until told to do so. This trick can be made more impressive by holding a conversation with your dog. For instance, you might say: “Buddy, old man, here is a very yummy piece of treat, but it is ‘on trust.’”

Slightly emphasize the word “trust” and then go on and say: “I am glad you dislike to eat things on trust, but this I have just learned has been ‘paid for,’” emphasizing the words “paid for.”

Your dog can also be taught to toss the treat on hearing a certain number. To teach this, balance it on his nose and hold his head while you count plainly and deliberately, one, two, three, and then chuck him under the chin. Until he has had a great deal of practice he will toss it up as promptly at one, two, four, as he will at one, two, three, but he must be drilled until he will not toss it until he hears “three,” and it will make it easier for him if you slightly emphasize the “THREE” word.

In time you can use many combinations of figures and he will wait until he hears the emphasized “three.” In working him do not make him wait too long before you say “three,” and allow him to eat the treat.

“Trust” and “Paid For” dog tricks are considerably difficult to master and requires plenty of patience from you. Remember, do not punish your dog if he can’t master the trick, and rather blame yourself for being a lousy teacher. :-) In any case, enjoy training and have lots of fun along the way.

Hybrid dog Isn’t that just another word for Mutt ?

Hybrid dog Isn’t that just another word for Mutt

Every day we hear more about the new “hybrid” dogs, or “designer” dogs. Each feature is accompanied by pictures of adorable puppies that are examples of this new “breed.”

Of course they’re cute! All puppies are! Should you pay hundreds, and in some cases, thousands of dollars for one? Certainly not! The offspring of a mating between two purebred dogs of different breeds is a mongrel, a mutt. And if you have one, you should love it, train it and care for it as if it had the bluest blood of the canine kingdom.

Every dog breed, and there are hundreds in the world, was “created” by humans. Each breed was developed for a specific purpose – whether that original job was guarding the flock or being the ideal lap-dog. There’s no reason that development shouldn’t continue. If there is a need for a dog with particular characteristics, enterprising individuals will come forward to fill that need.

However, it takes many generations to “breed true.” Compare yourself to your siblings. Do you all have the same looks, same personality, same interests and strengths? Chances are, you don’t. Each of you has some of the “best” traits of your parents. But those may not be the same traits. And each of you has some of the worst.

Two of the best-known mixed-breeds out there now are the “Golden Doodle” and the “Puggle.”  The thinking behind these crosses is fairly obvious: wouldn’t it be nice to have a Golden Retriever’s personality and willingness to please combined with the Poodle’s non-shedding coat and intelligence? Wouldn’t it be equally delightful to have a small dog without the breathing issues of a Pug, but quieter than a Beagle?

But there is no way of knowing you won’t get a high-strung, noisy, stubborn, slobbering mutt who sheds like the dickens!

If you are considering spending the kind of money that these “hybrids” are commanding, be sure to research all of the traits of the contributing breeds. You will get a mixture of the two. And an equally adorable mixture may be waiting for you at your local shelter – the size you want, with the coat you want and the adorable face that melts your heart.

If you require certain characteristics in your puppy – whether a family member has allergies, or you have a very small, or no yard, or your household requires a quiet, “easy keeper,” or if you wish to fully participate in the world of canine competition, consider a pure-bred animal. There are over 150 breeds recognized by the American Kennel Club. Research them at www.akc.org. Surely one of them is right for you.

Friday, June 15, 2018

Adopting An Older Golden Retriever

Adopting An Older Golden Retriever

Those of you who want a Golden Retriever but aren’t ready to go through the trials and tribulations of a puppy, should look into adopting an older Golden.  Older Golden Retrievers are mature, and prove to be great in homes where they need to spend a quality amount of time by themselves.  They are a very adjustable breed, being good tempered.  No matter how old the Golden may be, he will quickly become a valued member of your family in little to no time at all.

Many times, breeders will have older dogs for sale.  There are several reasons for this, which include show dogs that have lost their potential, studs that have been used for breeding, female Golden’s that have been bred a few times then retired, or other types of special conditions where a breeder is helping a friend get rid of his Golden Retriever.  There are other reasons as well, although whatever they may be - the adult Golden Retriever will be available for anyone who wants him.

Most older Golden Retrievers are already housebroken, and known a lot of behavior patterns and how to adapt to a new and loving family.  Although it will be a little hard on your new dog at first, if you give him plenty of love, attention, and patience, he’ll be just fine.  You need to keep reassuring your new Golden on a regular basis, and let him know that you are his new owner and that you love you and you are glad he’s a member of your family.

If you have been thinking of adopting an older Golden Retriever, you should make sure that you learn everything you can about him.  You should also determine his temperament, and whether or not it’s compatible with your family.  You should also learn important things as well, such as his diet, likes, dislikes, daily routine, and his habits.  Before you decide to take him, you should always make sure that the members of your family meet him as well, so you can talk it over and decide whether or not everyone wants the dog to be a member of your family.

With an older dog, you need to take care of him for the first days, and let him know where everything in your home is.  You’ll need to show him where he sleeps, where he should use the bathroom, and where his food is.  Take your time and be patient with him, as will normally take him a few days to learn how things in your home work.

You should always give your new Golden Retriever at least a month or so to get used to his new environment, before you start his new obedience training.  Even though your new dog may have some prior obedience training, you should still enroll him in a new class.  This way, he can brush up on training and you can work with him to help him understand.  Once you have finished training, he’ll understand your commands better and you and him will get along just fine.

All Golden Retrievers, regardless of their age, love attention.  Older Golden’s on the other hand, may have medical problems that you aren’t aware of.  You shouldn’t let this stop you from getting one though, simply because the rewards that you’ll find are far greater than any cons that may come to mind.  Although many people don’t give a lot of thought to getting an older Golden Retriever - they are perfect for families who don’t want to put up the time and troubles of raising a puppy.

Dangerous Dog Treats What To Know Before You Treat Your Pup

Dangerous Dog Treats What To Know Before You Treat Your Pup

What pooch does not love getting a treat or two now and then. Dog owners also love giving their dog’s treats. If you have a dog, then you have a good idea of what your dog likes to nibble on. There are so many treats available these days and they all come in all different shapes, sizes, colors, and consistencies. For every great dog treat, there are those on the market that are not so good. These treats can harm your pet by being lodged in your dog’s throat or intestines. This can cause choking or worse. If you love treating your canine friend, then you will want to be aware of those treats that can be potentially harmful. Even with treats that are not usually dangerous, you need to supervise your dog when they eat.

Greenies: Most dogs really enjoy these treats. They are advertised as a treats that help clean your dog’s teeth. However, you need to be aware that “greenies” can cause choking. This is because dogs eat these very quickly causes large chunks to lodge in the throat. Young puppies should not eat this treat and dogs that are prone to “scarfing” food. If your dog eats these treats, be aware of potential vomiting, bloody stools, and difficulty breathing.  If you notice any of these symptoms after your dog has eaten this treat, seek medical attention.

Rawhide Chews: What dog does not love snacking on these chewy treats? Rawhides are good because it cleans your dog’s teeth and keeps your dog occupied. However, rawhides are dangerous, as well. Some rawhides that originate outside of the United States may actually be preserved with arsenic-based chemicals that will be ingested by your doggie when he or she chews.  For this reason, make certain that any rawhide treat you purchase is processed in the United States where this preservative is forbidden.  If you cannot tell where a treat originated do not buy it! In addition, you still need to watch your dog when he her she is munching on rawhides to help prevent choking. Make sure you buy rawhides that are the right size for your dog, too. A small dog needs the smaller sized rawhide treats.

Chocolate: Chocolate is a terrible thing to allow dogs to eat. Of course, sometimes dogs get into candy and cake without your knowledge. Chocolate is toxic to both dogs and cats, so you need to be aware of your dog sneaking chocolate nibbles, especially around the holidays. Chocolate contains an ingredient called theobromine. This acts in the canine about the same way caffeine acts in the human.  A little will make the doggie hyperactive, but a huge dose may be fatal. If your dog has gotten into chocolate, you need to look for vomiting, shallow breathing, and irregular heartbeat.  A visit to the emergency vet unusually results.

Bones: It seems that it is the right of every dog to be able to crunch on a real bone from time to time. Dogs love bones of all types. However, some bones can be dangerous. Both chicken and turkey bones are especially dangerous because they are brittle. When your dog chews on the, they can easily splinter and cause choking. Some pork and beef bones can also cause the same problem. Veterinarians agree that the one of the safest bones you can give your dog is a shinbone.  If you must give your dog a bone, make sure you supervise your pooch and if he or she shows signs of bleeding, then you should call your vet immediately for some advice.

This is not to say that you cannot give your dog an occasional treat. That is one of the fun parts of owning a dog. You do need to watch your dog and make sure that your dog is safe when snacking. Always pay attention to what kind of treat you give your dog in case of a recall. 

GENERAL HISTORY OF DOGS

GENERAL HISTORY OF DOGS



There is no incongruity in the idea that in the very earliest period of man's habitation of this world he made a friend and companion of some sort of aboriginal representative of our modern dog, and that in return for its aid in protecting him from wilder animals, and in guarding his sheep and goats, he gave it a share of his food, a corner in his dwelling, and grew to trust it and care for it. Probably the animal was originally little else than an unusually gentle jackal, or an ailing wolf driven by its companions from the wild marauding pack to seek shelter in alien surroundings. One can well conceive the possibility of the partnership beginning in the circumstance of some helpless whelps being brought home by the early hunters to be tended and reared by the women and children. Dogs introduced into the  home as playthings for the children would grow to regard themselves, and be regarded, as members of the family

In nearly all parts of the world traces of an indigenous dog family are found, the only exceptions being the West Indian Islands, Madagascar, the eastern islands of the Malayan Archipelago, New Zealand, and the Polynesian Islands, where there is no sign that any dog, wolf, or fox has existed as a true aboriginal animal. In the ancient Oriental lands, and generally among the early Mongolians, the dog remained savage and neglected for centuries, prowling in packs, gaunt and wolf-like, as it prowls today through the streets and under the walls of every Eastern city. No attempt was made to allure it into human companionship or to improve it into docility. It is not until we come to examine the records of the higher civilisations of Assyria and Egypt that we discover any distinct varieties of canine form.

The dog was not greatly appreciated in Palestine, and in both the Old and New Testaments it is commonly spoken of with scorn and contempt as an "unclean beast." Even the familiar reference to the Sheepdog in the Book of Job "But now they that are younger than I have me in derision, whose fathers I would have disdained to set with the dogs of my flock" is not without a suggestion of contempt, and it is significant that the only biblical allusion to the dog as a recognised companion of man occurs in the apocryphal Book of Tobit (v. 16), "So they went forth both, and the young man's dog with them."

The great multitude of different breeds of the dog and the vast differences in their size, points, and general appearance are facts which make it difficult to believe that they could have had a common ancestry. One thinks of the difference between the Mastiff and the Japanese Spaniel, the Deerhound and the fashionable Pomeranian, the St. Bernard and the Miniature Black and Tan Terrier, and is perplexed in contemplating the possibility of their having descended from a common progenitor. Yet the disparity is no greater than that between the Shire horse and the Shetland pony, the Shorthorn and the Kerry cattle, or the Patagonian and the Pygmy; and all dog breeders know how easy it is to produce a variety in type and size by studied selection.

In order properly to understand this question it is necessary first to consider the identity of structure in the wolf and the dog. This identity of structure may best be studied in a comparison of the osseous system, or skeletons, of the two animals, which so closely resemble each other that their transposition would not easily be detected.

The spine of the dog consists of seven vertebrae in the neck, thirteen in the back, seven in the loins, three sacral vertebrae, and twenty to twenty-two in the tail. In both the dog and the wolf there are thirteen pairs of ribs, nine true and four false. Each has forty-two teeth. They both have five front and four hind toes, while outwardly the common wolf has so much the appearance of a large, bare-boned dog, that a popular description of the one would serve for the other.

Nor are their habits different. The wolf's natural voice is a loud howl, but when confined with dogs he will learn to bark. Although he is carnivorous, he will also eat vegetables, and when sickly he will nibble grass. In the chase, a pack of wolves will divide into parties, one following the trail of the quarry, the other endeavouring to intercept its retreat, exercising a considerable amount of strategy, a trait which is exhibited by many of our sporting dogs and terriers when hunting in teams.

A further important point of resemblance between the Canis lupus and the Canis familiaris lies in the fact that the period of gestation in both species is sixty-three days. There are from three to nine cubs in a wolf's litter, and these are blind for twenty-one days. They are suckled for two months, but at the end of that time they are able to eat half-digested flesh disgorged for them by their dam or even their sire.

The native dogs of all regions approximate closely in size, coloration, form, and habit to the native wolf of those regions. Of this most important circumstance there are far too many instances to allow of its being looked upon as a mere coincidence. Sir John Richardson, writing in 1829, observed that "the resemblance between the North American wolves and the domestic dog of the Indians is so great that the size and strength of the wolf seems to be the only difference.

It has been suggested that the one incontrovertible argument against the lupine relationship of the dog is the fact that all domestic dogs bark, while all wild Canidae express their feelings only by howls. But the difficulty here is not so great as it seems, since we know that jackals, wild dogs, and wolf pups reared by bitches readily acquire the habit. On the other hand, domestic dogs allowed to run wild forget how to bark, while there are some which have not yet learned so to express themselves.

The presence or absence of the habit of barking cannot, then, be regarded as an argument in deciding the question concerning the origin of the dog. This stumbling block consequently disappears, leaving us in the position of agreeing with Darwin, whose final hypothesis was that "it is highly probable that the domestic dogs of the world have descended from two good species of wolf (C. lupus and C. latrans), and from two or three other doubtful species of wolves namely, the European, Indian, and North African forms; from at least one or two South American canine species; from several races or species of jackal; and perhaps from one or more extinct species"; and that the blood of these, in some cases mingled together, flows in the veins of our domestic breeds.

THE MOST INTELLIGENT POODLE

THE MOST INTELLIGENT POODLE

The Poodle is commonly acknowledged to be the most wisely intelligent of all members of the canine race. There is a general belief that he is a fop, whose time is largely occupied in personal embellishment, and that he requires a great deal of individual attention in the matter of his toilet. It may be true that to keep him in exhibition order and perfect cleanliness his owner has need to devote more consideration to him than is necessary in the case of many breeds; but in other respects he gives very little trouble, and all who are attached to him are consistent in their opinion that there is no dog so intensely interesting and responsive as a companion. His qualities of mind and his acute powers of reasoning are indeed so great that there is something almost human in his attractiveness and his devotion. His aptitude in learning is never denied, and many are the stories told of his marvellous talent and versatility.

Not merely as a showman's dog has he distinguished himself. He is something more than a mountebank of the booths, trained to walk the tight rope and stand on his head. He is an adept at performing tricks, but it is his alertness of brain that places him apart from other animals. 

The profuse and long coat of this dog has the peculiarity that if not kept constantly brushed out it twists up into little cords which increase in length as the new hair grows and clings about it. The unshed old hair and the new growth entwined together thus become distinct rope-like cords. Eventually, if these cords are not cut short, or accidentally torn off, they drag along the ground, and so prevent the poor animal from moving with any degree of comfort or freedom. 

Corded Poodles are very showy, and from the remarkable appearance of the coat, attract a great deal of public attention when exhibited at shows; but they have lost popularity among most fanciers, and have become few in number owing to the obvious fact that it is impossible to make pets of them or keep them in the house. The reason of this is that the coat must, from time to time, be oiled in order to keep the cords supple and prevent them from snapping, and, of course, as their coats cannot be brushed, the only way of keeping the dog clean is to wash him, which with a corded Poodle is a lengthy and laborious process. Further, the coat takes hours to dry, and unless the newly washed dog be kept in a warm room he is very liable to catch cold. The result is, that the coats of corded Poodles are almost invariably dirty, and somewhat smelly.

Poodle's General appearance

Head: Long, straight, and fine, the skull not broad, with a slight peak at the back. 

Muzzle: Long (but not snipy) and strong not full in cheek; teeth white, strong, and level; gums black, lips black and not showing lippiness. 

Eyes: Almond shaped, very dark, full of fire and intelligence. 

Nose: Black and sharp.

Ears: The leather long and wide, low set on, hanging close to the face. 

Neck: Well proportioned and strong, to admit of the head being carried high and with dignity. 

Feet: Rather small, and of good shape, the toes well arched, pads thick and hard. 

Legs: Fore-legs set straight from shoulder, with plenty of bone and muscle. 

Hind-legs: Very muscular and well bent, with the hocks well let down. 

Tail: Set on rather high, well carried, never curled or carried over back.

Coat: Very profuse, and of good hard texture; if corded, hanging in tight, even cords; if non-corded, very thick and strong, of even length, the curls close and thick, without knots or cords.

THE FOXHOUND DOG

The Foxhound dog

Foxhounds were the very first of the canine races in Great Britain  to come under the domination of scientific breeding. There had been  hounds of more ancient origin, such as the Southern  Hound and the Bloodhound; but something different was wanted towards the end of the seventeenth century to hunt the wild deer that had become somewhat scattered after Cromwell's civil war. The demand was consequently for a quicker hound than those hitherto known, and people devoted to the chase began to breed it.

Head

Somewhat broad, not peaked like the Bloodhound, but long from the apex to the frontal bones, eyebrows very prominent, cheeks cut clean from the eye to the nostril, ears set low and in their natural condition thin and shapely, but not large, nose large, jaw strong and level, and small dewlaps, expression fierce, and with the best often repellent. 

Eyes

Very bright and deeply set, full of determination, and with a  very steady expression. The look of the Foxhound is very remarkable. 

Neck Should be perfectly clean, no skin ruffle whatever. The length of neck is of importance, both for stooping and giving an air of majesty.

Shoulders

The blades should be well into the back, and should slant, otherwise be wide and strong, to meet the arms, that should be long and powerful. 

Legs and feet

The bone should be perfectly straight from the arm downward, and descend in the same degree of size to the ankles. The knee should be almost flat and level; there should be no curve until coming to the toes, which should be very strong, round, cat-shaped, and every toe clean set as it were. 

Coat

The coat is hard hair, but short and smooth, the texture is as stiff as bristles, but beautifully laid. 

Colour

Belvoir tan, which is brown and black, perfectly intermixed, with white markings of various shapes and sizes. The white should be very opaque and clear. Black and white, with tan markings on head and stifles. Badger pied a kind of grey and white. Lemon pied, light yellow and white. Hare pied, a darker yellow and white. 

Height: Dogs from 23-1/2 to 24 inches; bitches from 22 to 22-1/2 inches.

Thursday, June 14, 2018

THE DECORATIVE DEERHOUND

THE DECORATIVE DEERHOUND

The Deerhound is one of the most decorative of dogs, impressively stately and picturesque wherever he is seen, whether it be amid the surroundings of the baronial hall, reclining at luxurious length before the open hearth in the fitful light of the log fire that flickers on polished armour and tarnished tapestry; out in the open, straining at the leash as he scents the dewy air, or gracefully bounding over the purple of his native hills. Grace and majesty are in his every movement and attitude, and even to the most prosaic mind there is about him the inseparable glamour of feudal romance and poetry. 

From remote days the Scottish nobles cherished their strains of Deerhound, seeking glorious sport in the Highland forests. The red deer belonged by inexorable law to the kings of Scotland, and great drives, which often lasted for several days, were made to round up the herds into given neighbourhoods for the pleasure of the court, as in the reign of Queen Mary. But the organised coursing of deer by courtiers ceased during the Stuart troubles, and was left in the hands of retainers, who thus replenished their chief's larder.

Head

The head should be broadest at the ears, tapering slightly to the eyes, with the muzzle tapering more decidedly to the nose. The muzzle should be pointed, but the teeth and lips level. The head should be long, the skull flat rather than round, with a very slight rise over the eyes, but with nothing approaching a stop. The skull should be coated with moderately long hair which is softer than the rest of the coat. The nose should be black (though in some blue-fawns the colour is blue) and slightly aquiline. In the lighter-coloured dogs a black muzzle is preferred. There should be a good moustache of rather silky hair, and a fair beard. 

Ears

The ears should be set on high, and, in repose, folded back like  the Greyhound's, though raised above the head in excitement without  losing the fold, and even, in some cases, semi-erect.The ear should be  soft, glossy, and like a mouse's coat to the touch, and the smaller  it is the better. It should have no long coat or long fringe, but there  is often a silky, silvery coat on the body of the ear and the tip.  Whatever the general colour, the ears should be black or dark-coloured. 

Neck and shoulders

The neck should be long that is, of the length  that befits the Greyhound character of the dog.  The nape of the neck should be very prominent where the head is set on, and the throat should be clean-cut at the angle and prominent. The shoulders should be well sloped, the blades well back, with not too much width between them.

Stern

Stern should be tolerably long, tapering, and reaching to within 1-1/2 inches of the ground, and about 1-1/2 inches below the hocks. When the dog is still, dropped perfectly straight down, or curved. When in motion it should be curved when excited, in no case to be lifted out of the line of the back. It should be well covered with hair, on the inside thick and wiry, underside longer.

Eyes

The eyes should be dark: generally they are dark brown or hazel.  The eye is moderately full with a soft look in repose, but a keen, far-away gaze when the dog is roused. The rims of the eyelids should be black. 

Body: The body and general formation is that of a Greyhound of larger size and bone. Chest deep rather than broad, but not too narrow and flat-sided. The loin well arched and drooping to the tail. 

Legs and feet

The legs should be broad and flat, a good broad forearm and elbow being desirable. Fore-legs, of course, as straight as possible. Feet close and compact, with well-arched toes. The hind-quarters drooping, and as broad and powerful as possible, the hips being set wide apart. The hind-legs should be well bent at the stifle, with great length from the hip to the hock, which should be broad and flat. 

Coat

The hair on the body, neck, and quarters should be harsh and wiry, and about 3 inches or 4 inches long; that on the head, breast, and belly is much softer. There should be a slight hairy fringe on the inside of the fore and hind-legs, but nothing approaching to the feathering of a Collie. The Deerhound should be a shaggy dog, but not over coated. 

Colour

Colour is much a matter of fancy. But there is no manner of doubt  that the dark blue-grey is the most preferred. Next come the darker and  lighter greys or brindles, the darkest being generally preferred.  Yellow and sandy-red or red-fawn, especially with black points i.e.,  ears and muzzle are also in equal estimation.

Height

From 28 inches to 30 inches, or even more if there be symmetry without coarseness, which, however, is rare. Height of bitches: From 26 inches upwards. There can be no objection to a bitch being large, unless she is too coarse, as even at her greatest height she does not approach that of the dog, and, therefore, could not well be too big for work, as over-big dogs are.
       

NEWFOUNDLAND THE ARISTOCRAT AMONG DOGS

NEWFOUNDLAND THE ARISTOCRAT AMONG DOGS

The dogs which take their name from the island of Newfoundland appeal to all lovers of animals.There are now two established varieties, the black and the white and black. There are also bronze-coloured dogs, but they are rare. The black variety of the Newfoundland is essentially black in colour; but this does not mean that there may be no other colour, for most black Newfoundlands have some white marks. In fact, a white marking on the chest is said to be typical of the true breed. Any white on the head or body would place the dog in the other than black variety. The black colour should preferably be of a dull jet appearance which approximates to brown. In the other than black class, there may be black and tan, bronze, and white and black. The latter predominates, and in this colour, beauty of marking is very important. The head should be black with a white muzzle and blaze, and the body and legs should be white with large patches of black on the saddle and quarters, with possibly other small black spots on the body and legs.

Apart from colour, the varieties should conform to the same standard. The head should be broad and massive, but in no sense heavy in appearance. The muzzle should be short, square, and clean cut, eyes rather wide apart, deep set, dark and small, not showing any haw; ears small, with close side carriage, covered with fine short hair (there should be no fringe to the ears), expression full of intelligence, dignity, and kindness.

The body should be long, square, and massive, loins strong and well filled; chest deep and broad; legs quite straight, somewhat short in proportion to the length of the body, and powerful, with round bone well covered with muscle; feet large, round, and close. The tail should be only long enough to reach just below the hocks, free from kink, and never curled over the back. The quality of the coat is very important; the coat should be very dense, with plenty of undercoat; the outer coat somewhat harsh and quite straight.

The appearance generally should indicate a dog of great strength, and very active for his build and size, moving freely with the body swung loosely between the legs, which gives a slight roll in gait. As regards size, the Newfoundland Club standard gives 140 lbs. to 120 lbs. weight for a dog, and 110 lbs. to 120 lbs. for a bitch, with an average height at the shoulder of 27 inches and 25 inches respectively; but it is doubtful whether dogs in proper condition do conform to both requirements. 

When rearing puppies give them soft food, such as well-boiled rice and milk, as soon as they will lap, and, shortly afterwards, scraped lean meat. Newfoundland puppies require plenty of meat to induce proper growth. The puppies should increase in weight at the rate of 3 lbs. a week, and this necessitates plenty of flesh, bone and muscle-forming food, plenty of meat, both raw and cooked. Milk is also good, but it requires to be strengthened with casein. The secret of growing full-sized dogs with plenty of bone and substance is to get a good start from birth, good feeding, warm, dry quarters, and freedom for the puppies to move about and exercise themselves as they wish. Forced exercise may make them go wrong on their legs. Medicine should not be required except for worms, and the puppies should be physicked for these soon after they are weaned, and again when three or four months old, or before that if they are not thriving. If free from worms, Newfoundland puppies will be found quite hardy, and, under proper conditions of food and quarters, they are easy to rear.

THE COLLIE DOG

THE COLLIE DOG

The Collie dog makes an excellent sporting dog, and can be taught to do the work of the Pointer and the Setter, as well as that of the Water Spaniel and the Retriever. He can be trained to perform the duties of other breeds.  He is clever at hunting, having an excellent nose, is a good vermin-killer, and a most faithful watch, guard, and companion.

Little is known with certainty of the origin of the Collie, but his cunning and his outward appearance would seem to indicate a relationship with the wild dog. Buffon was of opinion that he was the true dog of nature, the stock and model of the whole canine species. He considered the Sheepdog superior in instinct and intelligence to all other breeds, and that, with a character in which education has comparatively little share, he is the only animal born perfectly trained for the service of man.

At the shows this type of dog is invariably at the top of the class. He is considered the most tractable, and is certainly the most agile. Second to this type in favour is the smooth-coated variety, a very hard, useful dog, well adapted for hill work and usually very fleet of foot. He is not so sweet in temper as the black and white, and is slow to make friends. There is not a more  graceful and physically beautiful dog to be seen than the show Collie of the present period. Produced from the old working type, he is now practically a distinct breed. 

The skull should be flat, moderately wide between the ears, and gradually tapering towards the eyes. There should only be a slight depression at stop. The width of skull necessarily depends upon combined length of skull and muzzle; and the whole must be considered in connection with the size of the dog. The cheek should not be full or prominent. 

The muzzle should be of fair length, tapering to the nose, and must not show weakness or be snipy or lippy. Whatever the colour of the dog may be, the nose must be black. The teeth should be of good size, sound and level; very slight unevenness is permissible. The jaws Clean cut and powerful. The eyes are a very important feature, and give expression to the dog; they should be of medium size, set somewhat obliquely, of almond shape, and of a brown colour except in the case of merles, when the eyes are frequently (one or both) blue and white or china; expression full of intelligence, with a quick alert look when listening. The ears should be small and moderately wide at the base, and placed not too close together but on the top of the skull and not on the side of the head. When in repose they should be usually carried thrown back, but when on the alert brought forward and carried semi-erect, with tips slightly drooping in attitude of listening. 

The neck should be muscular, powerful and of fair length, and somewhat arched.  The body should be strong, with well sprung ribs, chest deep, fairly broad behind the shoulders, which should be sloped, loins very powerful. The dog should be straight in front. The fore-legs should be straight and muscular, neither in nor out at elbows, with a fair amount of bone; the forearm somewhat fleshy, the pasterns showing flexibility without weakness. The hind-legs should be muscular at the thighs, clean and sinewy below the hocks, with well bent stifles. The feet should be oval in shape, soles well padded, and the toes arched and close together. 

In general character he is a lithe active dog, his deep chest showing lung power, his neck strength, his sloping shoulders and well bent hocks indicating speed, and his expression high intelligence. He should be a fair length on the leg, giving him more of a racy than a cloddy appearance. In a few words, a Collie should show endurance, activity, and intelligence, with free and true action. In height dogs should be 22 ins. to 24 ins. at the shoulders, bitches 20 ins. to 22 ins. The weight for dogs is 45 to 65 lbs., bitches 40 to 55 lbs. The smooth collie only differs from the rough in its coat, which should be hard, dense and quite smooth.